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The History of the Communist Party in Hedong
Issue time:2019-11-07

A Brief Introduction to the History of the Communist Party in Hedong in the Period of Democratic Revolution

Yuncheng is known as Hedong in ancient times. The party organization was founded in the late period of the great revolution. It is one of the areas where the Communist Party of Shanxi Province founded earlier. At the beginning of the founding, the local Party organizations in Yuncheng led the movement of workers, peasants and students. During the Agrarian Revolutionary War, the Communists represented by Yan Zixiang organized and launched a vigorous Anti-Japanese and national salvation movement from all walks of life; the Communists represented by Jia Kangjie organized the armed struggle of farmers in Hedong on the basis of Zhongtiao Mountain. During the Anti-Japanese War, Hedong party organization, relying on Jiwang Mountain and Zhongtiao Mountain, established Anti-Japanese base areas, insisted on Anti-Japanese guerrilla war, constantly developed and strengthened the party's strength, insisted on the Anti-Japanese national united front, and finally won the victory of the Anti-Japanese war. During the period of the liberation war, the party, government, army and people of Yuncheng united and won great victories in the war of self-defense, such as the battle of Wen Xia, the counterattack in southern Shanxi and the battle of Yuncheng, which made great contributions to the support of the troops in Northern Shaanxi, the defense of Yan'an, the march into the Central Plains and the national liberation.

I. The Great Revolution Period

Yuncheng native students Wang Hongjun, Deng Guodong, Yang Zhenduo, Wang Zhanjing and Li Zihe were early communists in Shanxi, pioneers of Yuncheng communist movement and founders of party organizations. In the summer of 1924, they joined the Communist Youth League one after another. In the autumn of 1925, they joined the Party organization. Wang Hongjun and Deng Guodong served as leaders of Taiyuan Prefectural Party Committee. In the winter of 1925, they were sent by the Party organization to found the party in Yuncheng and held activities in Hejin, Wenxi, Wanrong, Ruicheng and other counties. Wang Hongjun (from Chuhou Village, Linyi County) introduced Qi Jinlan, Wang Yuechun, Feng Yanjun and Qiao Banquets (also known as Qiao Zijia) to join the Chinese Communist Party in Shanxi Provincial No.2 Middle School (hereinafter referred to as Provincial No.2 Middle School).In the spring of 1926, the first branch of Yuncheng, the Yuncheng branch of the communist party of China, was established in the provincial No.2 middle school. Qi jinlan was the secretary of the branch.  In the April of 1926, The special branch of the Communist Youth League was established in Wen Xi, with Li Yunzhang as the secretary. In the July of 1926, Cui churen and Wang hongjun also presided over the establishment of the executive committee of Hedong branch of the communist party , coordinating and leading the work of the Yuncheng branch of the communist party, the branch of the Shanxi provincial No.2 Normal School in Yuncheng and the Yanchi branch, with a total of 23 party members.

After the establishment of Yuncheng party organization, it actively organized and led workers' and students' movements, assembled workers of salt lake to parade, expanded the influence of the party organization in Yuncheng. Subsequently, branches were established in Xiaxian, Wenxi, Anyi, Yishi, Wanquan, Hejin, Xinjiang and other counties. In the July of 1927, Anyi County Committee of the Communist Party of China, the first county committee in Yuncheng district, was established in Anyi County, with Li Erming as the Secretary . So far, the district has established 13 party branches of the Communist Party of China (CPC), one CPC County Committee and 92 party members.

After the counter revolutionary coup of 1927, the party organizations in each county were destroyed in different degrees and turned into secret activities.

II. The Land Revolution Period

After the failure of the great revolution, under the white terror, Yuncheng party organization transferred from the city to the countryside. Under extremely difficult conditions, it led and carried out a series of revolutionary struggles.

In 1927, Guo Jucai (a special commissioner of the provincial Party committee) and Feng Yanjun (the head of Yuncheng party organization) organized more than 10000 farmers in Anyi to fight against Zheng Yufu, the corrupt head of the county. More than 10000 students and farmers of Yishi denounced the "August 1 agricultural violence" of the evil gentry. The party organizations of Xiaxian County and Wenxi County also led the farmers to carry out a series of anti-corruption struggles, pushing the revolutionary struggle of Yuncheng to a climax.

In June of 1928, the special Hedong Committee of CPC (the predecessor of Yuncheng Municipal Committee) was established in Duiyundong Taoist Temple, Xiaxian County which was the first regional party organization. Later, due to the destruction of the temporary Shanxi Provincial Committee, Guo Jucai ( the special envoy sent by the provincial Party committee to Hedong) and Zhou Yulin (the Secretary of the Communist Youth League of Shanxi provincial Party committee) were arrested successively, and the Yuncheng party organization fell into an extremely difficult situation. By the beginning of 1929, there were more than 20 party members with organizational relations in Yuncheng district, but they still continued their activities.

During this period, the Shanxi provincial Party committee of CPC was destroyed many times. The activities of the party moved southward. Yuncheng once became the revolutionary center of the whole province. The provincial Party committee successively held four important meetings in Yuncheng. First, in the autumn of 1927, Wang Hongjun and Deng Guodong, the heads of the provisional provincial Party committee of Shanxi Province , held a meeting in Xialiu village, Xiaxian County, to convey and implement the spirit of the party's "August 7th" meeting. After the meeting, Ruicheng, Xiaxian and Yuanqu County Party committees were established. Second, in June 1928, Wang Hongjun and Wang Ming of the CPC Shanxi Provincial Committee held a meeting in duyundong , Xiaxian County, to establish the Yuncheng special committee of the CPC . Third, in June 1929, Wang Ming, special commissioner of Shunzhi Provincial Committee of the Communist Party of China, held a meeting to convey the spirit of Zhou Enlai, member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of CPC, the letter of instruction to Shunzhi Provincial Committee and Comrade Wang Ming. Hedong special committee of the Communist Party of China was changed to Hedong special branch of the Communist Party of China. Fourth, in June 1930, Feng Yanjun, Secretary of the provisional municipal Party committee of the Communist Party of China in Taiyuan, presided over a meeting of Peijie in Xiaxian county to arrange the riots in Taiyuan and Hedong.

After the September 18th Incident in 1931, the party organizations in Yuncheng district lost contact with their superiors for many times. However, the grass-roots party organizations in Hedong District continued their activities under the leadership ofJia Kangjie and Jin Changgeng. In May 1934, the party organization of Jiangxian county established the Red Army guerrillas of Jiangxian County, the first people's revolutionary armed forces under the leadership of the Communist Party of China, in Huashan temple on Zhongtiao Mountain. In the spring of 1936, when the Red Army marched to Houma, Jia Kangjie launched a Zhongtiao Mountain armed insurrection in Xiaxian County, and established the Red Army's guerrillas of South Shanxi Province. The guerrillas attacked the second and fifth district offices, carried out the struggle of "dividing grain and burning contracts", and executed several bully landlords. Later, although it failed under the encirclement and suppression of the Kuomintang army, its influence was far-reaching and significant.

From the winter of 1929 to September of 1937, Hedong party organization was constantly damaged and lost contact with its superiors for many times. Yuncheng party organization has experienced several stages, such as Hedong Central County Committee of CPC, Hedong special branch of CPC, Hedong special committee of CPC, Hedong Central County Committee of  CPC and so on. Under the leadership of Jia Kangjie, the Communist Party of Hedong has overcome difficulties and setbacks. They have never forgotten their original intention and never stopped moving forward.

III. Anti-Japanese War

After the July 7th incident in 1937, the Anti-Japanese war broke out in an all-round way. From the end of August to the beginning of October, the headquarters of the Eighth Route Army and the three main forces crossed the Yellow River in batches from Zhichuan ferry in Hancheng, Shaanxi Province. After landed on the ferry in Miaoqian village of Wanrong (formerly Ronghe county) of Yuncheng city, they traveled north through Wanrong, Hejin, Jishan and Xinjiang to the front line of Anti-Japanese. Although the Eighth Route Army has only passed Yuncheng for more than one month, it has effectively mobilized and organized the masses. At the same time, the local Party organizations in Yuncheng have actively organized the masses to comfort the army and encourage the masses to join the army in the war.

In September 1937, the Shanxi Working Committee of CPC sent Yan Zixiang to Yuncheng district to establish the working committee of the Communist Party of China. At the same time, the party organizations were restored in each county. One general branch, one special branch, two counties, one Municipal Committee and 11 County committees of CPC were successively restored and established. At the same time, we have established mass Anti-Japanese and national salvation organizations such as the local team of Yuncheng, Yuncheng student salvation Federation, Hedong women and farmers, youth, workers Salvation Association, etc. Party organizations at all levels take the League of Self-Sacrifice for National Salvation as the platform to carry out extensive Anti-Japanese publicizing, organize Anti-Japanese armed forces and carry out Anti-Japanese struggle. In April 1938, the Anti-Japanese guerrillas were reorganized into the first, second and Third branches of Shanxi political and Health Bureau. In July 1939, it was adapted into 212 brigade and 213 brigade of Shanxi new army.

After 1938, Yuncheng district had no unified prefecture level organizations of the CPC, and each county was divided into two strategic areas under the leadership of the party organizations. The south and east area of Tongpu railway is Zhongtiao Local Committee Under the leadership of the Jin Yu special committee of CPC and the Party committee of Jin Yu (Tainan) District of CPC. In 1941, the Zhongtiao Local Committee was divided into the the east Zhongtiao local committee and the west Zhongtiao Local Committee. In March 1943, the west Zhongtiao Local Committee was changed into the Five Local committees of Taiyue. The north and the west section of the Fifth Local committees of Taiyue is under the leadership of the Xiangji special committee of CPC. The party organization mainly includes the Central County Committee of the Yishi of CPC (later renamed Fennan Central County Committee of CPC) and was assigned to the Fifth Local committees of Taiyue of CPC after 1944.

After the West Shanxi incident (also known as the "December incident") in December 1939, most of the official of the South Shanxi party moved to the Taiyue base area, and the remaining comrades continued their struggle under the cover of various social occupations. In May 1941, after the battle of Zhongtiao Mountain, Zhongtiao Mountain was full of scattered soldiers and many commanders. The Party committee of Shanxi and Henan District of the Communist Party of China decided to open up Zhongtiao and establish Zhongtiao Mountain Anti-Japanese base. After the establishment of the CPC Western Region Committee, it seized the favorable opportunity to establish Anti-Japanese armed forces and local political power, successively established more than 2000 Anti-Japanese armed forces, including Kang Junren guerrilla detachment, the ninth Anti-Japanese guerrilla detachment, the tenth Anti-Japanese detachment, the fourth Anti-Japanese advancing column of Zhongtiao Mountain, and established five Anti-Japanese political power at the county level, namely Xinjiang, Wenxi, Xiaxian, Pinglu and Anyi. The fifth military division of Taiyue and the fifth special office of Taiyue were established in the winter of 1943 and August of 1944 respectively. In August 1945, after eight years of bloody struggle, the Japanese invaders were finally driven out of Yuncheng.

IV. During the War of Liberation

After the victory of the Anti-Japanese War, the Fifth Local Committees of Taiyue of CPC had jurisdiction over 14 County committees including Wenxi and Xiaxian of the CPC and Fennan Working Committee of the CPC. In order to adapt to the development of the situation of the liberation war, in December 1945, the Fifth Local Committees of Taiyue of CPC were changed to the Third Local committees of Taiyue of CPC.

In 1946, the 4th column of the field army of Shanxi Hebei Shandong Henan military region under the command of Chen Geng and the 24th brigade of Taiyue military region under the command of Wang Xinting launched the Wenxia campaign from July 13 to 24, wiping out the 31 troops of Hu zongnan.

In 1947, in order to cooperate with our army in Northern Shaanxi, the Shanxi Hebei Shandong Henan field army and the Taiyue military region troops launched campaigns in southern Shanxi successively, and liberated all counties in southern Shanxi except Yuncheng, Xiaxian and Anyi. After three battles and three stops in 1947, Yuncheng was liberated on December 28. In early January 1948, the Kuomintang occupied Yuncheng again and withdrew in early February. Since then, Yuncheng has been completely liberated.

In the early days of the liberation war, Yuncheng was under the jurisdiction of the Fifth Local Committee of Taiyue, the Third Local Committee and the Tenth Local Committee of Shanxi and Suiyuan. In July 1948, the Third Local committees of Taiyue were under the leadership of Luliang District Committee of Jinsui sub Bureau, renamed as the 11th Local committee of CPC. Together with the 10th Jinsui Commitee , they are under the leadership of Linfen Working Committee of Jinsui sub Bureau of CPC (changed to Jinnan Working Committee in November 1948). In February 1949, the 11th Local Committee of Jinsui was changed to Yuncheng Local committee of CPC, and the 10th Local Committee of Jinsui was changed to Xinjiang Local Committee of CPC. In June 1949, Jinnan Working Committee of CPC was canceled and South Shanxi Central Local Committee of CPC was established. Under the leadership of Jinsui branch of CPC, it has five Central County committees of Yuncheng, Yongji, Xinjiang, Jishan and Xixian, and five county committees directly under Linfen, Xiangling, Quwo and Zhaocheng. In October 1949, the Shanxi Suiyuan branch was abolished, and the central local committee of the south of Shanxi was under the leadership of the Northwest Bureau of CPC. In 1950, the central local committee of South Shanxi was abolished and Yuncheng local committee and Linfen local committee of CPC were established. Now Yuncheng administrative division is officially formed.

After the liberation of Yuncheng, the local Party committee led Yuncheng people to actively carry out the movement of supporting the national liberation, organized a large number of officials and migrant workers to "move westward and southward" and made significant contributions to the national liberation. In January 1950, Yuncheng local committee of the Communist Party of China was formally established. Since then, Yuncheng district party organizations have completed the task of new democratic revolution and entered a new era of socialist revolution and socialist construction.